rep {base} | R Documentation |

`rep`

replicates the values in `x`

. It is a generic
function, and the default method is described here.

`rep.int`

is a faster simplified version for the commonest case.

rep(x, times, ...) ## Default S3 method: rep(x, times, length.out, each, ...) rep.int(x, times)

`x` |
a vector (of any mode including a list) or a pairlist or a
`POSIXct` or `POSIXlt` or `date` object. |

`times` |
optional non-negative integer. A vector giving the number of
times to repeat each element if of length `length(x)` , or to
repeat the whole vector if of length 1. |

`length.out` |
optional integer. The desired length of the output vector. |

`each` |
optional integer. Each element of `x` is
repeated `each` times. |

`...` |
further arguments to be passed to or from other methods. |

A least one of `times`

, `length.out`

and `each`

must be
specified, and normally exactly one is. If `length.out`

is
given, `times`

is ignored. If `each`

is specified with
either of the other two, its replication is performed first, and then
that implied by `times`

or `length.out`

.

If `times`

consists of a single integer,
the result consists of the values in
`x`

repeated this many times.
If `times`

is a vector of the same length as
`x`

, the result consists of `x[1]`

repeated `times[1]`

times,
`x[2]`

repeated `times[2]`

times and so on.

`length.out`

may be given in place of `times`

,
in which case `x`

is repeated as many times as is
necessary to create a vector of this length.

Non-integer values of `times`

will be truncated towards zero.
If `times`

is a computed quantity it is prudent to add a small fuzz.

If `x`

has length zero and `length.out`

is supplied and is
positive, the values are filled in using the extraction rules, that is
by an `NA`

of the appropriate class for an atomic vector
(`0`

for raw vectors) and `NULL`

for a list.

A vector of the same class as `x`

.

If the original vector has names, these are also replicated and so will almost always contain duplicates. (In contrast, S strips the names.)

Function `rep.int`

is a simple case handled by internal code, and
provided as a separate function purely for S compatibility.

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988)
*The New S Language*.
Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

rep(1:4, 2) rep(1:4, each = 2) # not the same. rep(1:4, c(2,2,2,2)) # same as second. rep(1:4, c(2,1,2,1)) rep(1:4, each = 2, len = 4) # first 4 only. rep(1:4, each = 2, len = 10) # 8 integers plus two recycled 1's. rep(1:4, each = 2, times = 3) # length 24, 3 complete replications rep(1, 40*(1-.8)) # length 7 on most platforms rep(1, 40*(1-.8)+1e-7) # better ## replicate a list fred <- list(happy = 1:10, name = "squash") rep(fred, 5) # date-time objects x <- .leap.seconds[1:3] rep(x, 2) rep(as.POSIXlt(x), rep(2, 3))

[Package *base* version 2.2.1 Index]