svm {e1071}R Documentation

Support Vector Machines


svm is used to train a support vector machine. It can be used to carry out general regression and classification (of nu and epsilon-type), as well as density-estimation. A formula interface is provided.


## S3 method for class 'formula':
svm(formula, data = NULL, ..., subset, na.action =
na.omit, scale = TRUE)
## Default S3 method:
svm(x, y = NULL, scale = TRUE, type = NULL, kernel =
"radial", degree = 3, gamma = 1 / ncol(as.matrix(x)), coef0 = 0, cost = 1, nu = 0.5,
class.weights = NULL, cachesize = 40, tolerance = 0.001, epsilon = 0.1,
shrinking = TRUE, cross = 0, probability = FALSE, fitted = TRUE, 
..., subset, na.action = na.omit)


formula a symbolic description of the model to be fit. Note, that an intercept is always included, whether given in the formula or not.
data an optional data frame containing the variables in the model. By default the variables are taken from the environment which ‘svm’ is called from.
x a data matrix, a vector, or a sparse matrix (object of class matrix.csr as provided by the package SparseM).
y a response vector with one label for each row/component of x. Can be either a factor (for classification tasks) or a numeric vector (for regression).
scale A logical vector indicating the variables to be scaled. If scale is of length 1, the value is recycled as many times as needed. Per default, data are scaled internally (both x and y variables) to zero mean and unit variance. The center and scale values are returned and used for later predictions.
type svm can be used as a classification machine, as a regresson machine, or for novelty detection. Depending of whether y is a factor or not, the default setting for type is C-classification or eps-regression, respectively, but may be overwritten by setting an explicit value.
Valid options are:
  • C-classification
  • nu-classification
  • one-classification (for novelty detection)
  • eps-regression
  • nu-regression
kernel the kernel used in training and predicting. You might consider changing some of the following parameters, depending on the kernel type.
(gamma*u'*v + coef0)^degree
radial basis:
tanh(gamma*u'*v + coef0)
degree parameter needed for kernel of type polynomial (default: 3)
gamma parameter needed for all kernels except linear (default: 1/(data dimension))
coef0 parameter needed for kernels of type polynomial and sigmoid (default: 0)
cost cost of constraints violation (default: 1)—it is the ‘C’-constant of the regularization term in the Lagrange formulation.
nu parameter needed for nu-classification and one-classification
class.weights a named vector of weights for the different classes, used for asymetric class sizes. Not all factor levels have to be supplied (default weight: 1). All components have to be named.
cachesize cache memory in MB (default 40)
tolerance tolerance of termination criterion (default: 0.001)
epsilon epsilon in the insensitive-loss function (default: 0.1)
shrinking option whether to use the shrinking-heuristics (default: TRUE)
cross if a integer value k>0 is specified, a k-fold cross validation on the training data is performed to assess the quality of the model: the accuracy rate for classification and the Mean Sqared Error for regression
fitted logical indicating whether the fitted values should be computed and included in the model or not (default: TRUE)
probability logical indicating whether the model should allow for probability predictions.
... additional parameters for the low level fitting function svm.default
subset An index vector specifying the cases to be used in the training sample. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)
na.action A function to specify the action to be taken if NAs are found. The default action is na.omit, which leads to rejection of cases with missing values on any required variable. An alternative is, which causes an error if NA cases are found. (NOTE: If given, this argument must be named.)


For multiclass-classification with k levels, k>2, libsvm uses the ‘one-against-one’-approach, in which k(k-1)/2 binary classifiers are trained; the appropriate class is found by a voting scheme.
libsvm internally uses a sparse data representation, which is also high-level supported by the package SparseM.
If the predictor variables include factors, the formula interface must be used to get a correct model matrix. plot.svm allows a simple graphical visualization of classification models.
The probability model for classification fits a logistic distribution using maximum likelihood to the decision values of all binary classifiers, and computes the a-posteriori class probabilities for the multi-class problem using quadratic optimization. The probabilistic regression model assumes (zero-mean) laplace-distributed errors for the predictions, and estimates the scale parameter using maximum likelihood.


An object of class "svm" containing the fitted model, including:

SV The resulting support vectors (possibly scaled).
index The index of the resulting support vectors in the data matrix. Note that this index refers to the preprocessed data (after the possible effect of na.omit and subset)
coefs The corresponding coefficients times the training labels.
rho The negative intercept.
sigma In case of a probabilistic regression model, the scale parameter of the hypothesized (zero-mean) laplace distribution estimated by maximum likelihood.
probA, probB numeric vectors of length k(k-1)/2, k number of classes, containing the parameters of the logistic distributions fitted to the decision values of the binary classifers (1 / (1 + exp(a x + b))).


Data are scaled internally, usually yielding better results.


David Meyer (based on C/C++-code by Chih-Chung Chang and Chih-Jen Lin)


See Also

predict.svm plot.svm matrix.csr (in package SparseM)



## classification mode
# default with factor response:
model <- svm(Species ~ ., data = iris)

# alternatively the traditional interface:
x <- subset(iris, select = -Species)
y <- Species
model <- svm(x, y) 


# test with train data
pred <- predict(model, x)
# (same as:)
pred <- fitted(model)

# Check accuracy:
table(pred, y)

# compute decision values and probabilities:
pred <- predict(model, x, decision.values = TRUE)
attr(pred, "decision.values")[1:4,]

# visualize (classes by color, SV by crosses):
     col = as.integer(iris[,5]),
     pch = c("o","+")[1:150 %in% model$index + 1])

## try regression mode on two dimensions

# create data
x <- seq(0.1, 5, by = 0.05)
y <- log(x) + rnorm(x, sd = 0.2)

# estimate model and predict input values
m   <- svm(x, y)
new <- predict(m, x)

# visualize
plot(x, y)
points(x, log(x), col = 2)
points(x, new, col = 4)

## density-estimation

# create 2-dim. normal with rho=0:
X <- data.frame(a = rnorm(1000), b = rnorm(1000))

# traditional way:
m <- svm(X, gamma = 0.1)

# formula interface:
m <- svm(~., data = X, gamma = 0.1)
# or:
m <- svm(~ a + b, gamma = 0.1)

# test:
newdata <- data.frame(a = c(0, 4), b = c(0, 4))
predict (m, newdata)

# visualize:
plot(X, col = 1:1000 %in% m$index + 1, xlim = c(-5,5), ylim=c(-5,5))
points(newdata, pch = "+", col = 2, cex = 5)

# weights: (example not particularly sensible)
i2 <- iris
levels(i2$Species)[3] <- "versicolor"
wts <- 100 / table(i2$Species)
m <- svm(Species ~ ., data = i2, class.weights = wts)

[Package e1071 version 1.5-2 Index]