arrows {graphics}R Documentation

Add Arrows to a Plot


Draw arrows between pairs of points.


arrows(x0, y0, x1, y1, length = 0.25, angle = 30, code = 2,
       col = par("fg"), lty = NULL, lwd = par("lwd"), xpd = NULL)


x0, y0 coordinates of points from which to draw.
x1, y1 coordinates of points to which to draw.
length length of the edges of the arrow head (in inches).
angle angle from the shaft of the arrow to the edge of the arrow head.
code integer code, determining kind of arrows to be drawn.
col, lty, lwd, xpd graphical parameters as in par.


For each i, an arrow is drawn between the point (x0[i], y0[i]) and the point (x1[i],y1[i]).

If code=1 an arrowhead is drawn at (x0[i],y0[i]) and if code=2 an arrowhead is drawn at (x1[i],y1[i]). If code=3 a head is drawn at both ends of the arrow. Unless length = 0, when no head is drawn.

The graphical parameters col, lty and lwd can be vectors of length greater than one and will be recycled if necessary. NA values of col are replaced by par("col").

The direction of a zero-length arrow is indeterminate, and hence so is the direction of the arrowheads. To allow for rounding error, arrowheads are omitted (with a warning) on any arrow of length less than 1/1000 inch.


The first four arguments in the comparable S function are named x1,y1,x2,y2.


Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

See Also

segments to draw segments.


x <- runif(12); y <- rnorm(12)
i <- order(x,y); x <- x[i]; y <- y[i]
plot(x,y, main="arrows(.) and segments(.)")
## draw arrows from point to point :
s <- seq(length(x)-1)# one shorter than data
arrows(x[s], y[s], x[s+1], y[s+1], col= 1:3)
s <- s[-length(s)]
segments(x[s], y[s], x[s+2], y[s+2], col= 'pink')

[Package graphics version 2.2.1 Index]