bs {splines} | R Documentation |

## B-Spline Basis for Polynomial Splines

### Description

Generate the B-spline basis matrix for a polynomial spline.

### Usage

bs(x, df = NULL, knots = NULL, degree = 3, intercept = FALSE,
Boundary.knots = range(x))

### Arguments

`x` |
the predictor variable. Missing values are allowed. |

`df` |
degrees of freedom; one can specify `df` rather than
`knots` ; `bs()` then chooses `df-degree-1` knots at
suitable quantiles of `x` (which will ignore missing values). |

`knots` |
the *internal* breakpoints that define the
spline. The default is `NULL` , which results in a basis for
ordinary polynomial regression. Typical values are the mean or
median for one knot, quantiles for more knots. See also
`Boundary.knots` . |

`degree` |
degree of the piecewise polynomial—default is 3 for
cubic splines. |

`intercept` |
if `TRUE` , an intercept is included in the
basis; default is `FALSE` . |

`Boundary.knots` |
boundary points at which to anchor the B-spline
basis (default the range of the data). If both `knots` and
`Boundary.knots` are supplied, the basis parameters do not
depend on `x` . Data can extend beyond `Boundary.knots` . |

### Value

A matrix of dimension `length(x) * df`

, where either `df`

was supplied or if `knots`

were supplied,
`df = length(knots) + 3 + intercept`

. Attributes are returned
that correspond to the arguments to `bs`

, and explicitly give
the `knots`

, `Boundary.knots`

etc for use by
`predict.bs()`

.

`bs()`

is based on the function `spline.des()`

.
It generates a basis matrix for
representing the family of piecewise polynomials with the specified
interior knots and degree, evaluated at the values of `x`

. A
primary use is in modeling formulas to directly specify a piecewise
polynomial term in a model.

### References

Hastie, T. J. (1992)
Generalized additive models.
Chapter 7 of *Statistical Models in S*
eds J. M. Chambers and T. J. Hastie, Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

### See Also

`ns`

, `poly`

, `smooth.spline`

,
`predict.bs`

, `SafePrediction`

### Examples

bs(women$height, df = 5)
summary(fm1 <- lm(weight ~ bs(height, df = 5), data = women))
## example of safe prediction
plot(women, xlab = "Height (in)", ylab = "Weight (lb)")
ht <- seq(57, 73, len = 200)
lines(ht, predict(fm1, data.frame(height=ht)))
## Consistency:
x <- c(1:3,5:6)
stopifnot(identical(bs(x), bs(x, df = 3)),
!is.null(kk <- attr(bs(x), "knots")),# not true till 1.5.1
length(kk) == 0)

[Package

*splines* version 2.2.1

Index]