head {utils} | R Documentation |

## Return the First or Last Part of an Object

### Description

Returns the first or last parts of a vector, matrix, data frame or function.

### Usage

head(x, ...)
## Default S3 method:
head(x, n = 6, ...)
## S3 method for class 'data.frame':
head(x, n = 6, ...)
## S3 method for class 'matrix':
head(x, n = 6, ...)
tail(x, ...)
## Default S3 method:
tail(x, n = 6, ...)
## S3 method for class 'data.frame':
tail(x, n = 6, ...)
## S3 method for class 'matrix':
tail(x, n = 6, addrownums = TRUE, ...)

### Arguments

`x` |
an object |

`n` |
size for the resulting object: number of elements for a
vector (including lists), rows for a matrix or data frame or
lines for a function. |

`addrownums` |
if there are no row names, create them from the row numbers. |

`...` |
arguments to be passed to or from other methods. |

### Details

For matrices and data frames, the first/last `n`

rows are returned.
For functions, the first/last `n`

lines of the deparsed function are
returned as character strings.

If a matrix has no row names, then `tail()`

will add row names of
the form `"[n,]"`

to the result, so that it looks similar to the last lines of `x`

when printed. Setting `addrownums = FALSE`

suppresses this behaviour.

### Value

An object (usually) like `x`

but generally smaller.

### Author(s)

Patrick Burns, improved and corrected by R-Core

### Examples

head(freeny.x, n = 10)
head(freeny.y)
tail(freeny.x)
tail(freeny.y)
tail(library)

[Package

*utils* version 2.2.1

Index]